[personal profile] skysailor

Quick-grab summary:

1. Eat fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
2. Avoid saturated fat, free sugars, and salt.
3. Exercise for at least an hour a day.
4. Take fish oil, fiber, and folate supplements.

 Dietary Factor

 

Goal (% of total energy, unless otherwise stated)

Total Fat

15-30%

Saturated fatty acids

<10% (<7% if at high risk for diabetes)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

6-10%

n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids

5-8%

n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids

1-2%

Trans fatty acids

<1%

Oleic acid (a monounsaturated fatty acid)

Total fat – (saturated fatty acids + polyunsaturated fatty acids + trans fatty acids)

Total carbohydrate

55-75%

Free sugars (added sugars, honey, syrup, juice)

<10% (<55 g/day), <= 4x/day

Protein

10-15%

Cholesterol

<300 mg/day

Sodium chloride

<5 g/day (<2 g/day)

Fruits and vegetables

400-500 g/day

Total dietary fibre

Accomplished through recommended intake of fruits/veg and consumption of wholegrain foods

Non-starch polysaccharides

>= 20g/day. Accomplished through recommended intake of fruits/veg and consumption of wholegrain foods

Potassium

70-80 mmol/day. Accomplished through recommended intake of fruits/veg.

Fish

1-2 servings/week, average 40-60 g/day (200-500 mg eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanoic acid/serving)

Biological diversity of foods

20-30 biologically distinct foods/week, esp. plants

 

Decreased Risk

No Relationship

Increased Risk

Fruits

Vitamin E supplements

Sugars-sweetened soft drinks and fruit juices

Low to moderate alcohol intake

Stearic acid

Very hot (thermally) drinks (and food)

Voluntary weight loss in overweight and obese people

Starch intake (for starch foods without added sugars)

Unfiltered boiled coffee

Physical activity, regular

 

High alcohol intake

Good oral hygiene/absence of plaque

 

Aflatoxins

Hard cheese

 

Abdominal obesity

Home environments supporting healthy food choices

 

Overweight and obesity

High dietary intake of NSP (dietary fibre)

 

Low body weight

Linoleic acid

 

Physical inactivity/sedentary lifestyle

Fish and fish oils

 

High intake of energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods (often, processed foods high in fat and/or sugars; low energy-dense foods are high in dietary fibre and water and include fruit, legumes, vegetables, and whole grain cereals)

Potassium

 

Myristic and palmitic acids

Alpha-Linolenic acid

 

Trans fatty acids

Oleic acid

 

High sodium intake

Wholegrain cereals

 

Dietary cholesterol

Nuts (unsalted)

 

Chinese-style salted fish

Plant sterols/stanols

 

Preserved meat

Folate

 

Salt-preserved foods

Fluoride explosure

 

Free sugar (amount and frequency)

Vitamin D

 

Excess fluoride

Sugars-free chewing gum

 

Vitamin C deficiency

 

 

Hypocalcaemia

 

 

Undernutrition

Eat This

Not That

Fruits

Saturated Fat

Vegetables

Free Sugars

Whole Grains

Salt

Legumes

Dairy Fat

Fish

Meat

Vegetable Oils: Soybean, Sunflower, Flaxseed, Canola, Olive

Unfiltered Boiled Coffee

Nuts (unsalted)

Hydrogenated oils and fats

Tea

Preserved meats

Soy

Salt-preserved foods

 

Scalding-hot drinks and food

 


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